30V-4A Adjustable Power Supply (CC-CV)

By Hesam Moshiri, Anson BaoPower supplies are one of the most popular topics in electronics. There are two major types of regulated power supply: linear and switching. Both power supply types introduce some advantages and disadvantages, however, a linear power supply offers better line and load regulation figures and it handles lower noise at the output, specifically when the power supply is adjustable and the output is under load; although its efficiency is lower than a switching power supply. ...

Adjustable Power Supply

Have You Ever Seen These Pads?

The pad is the basic unit of PCB surface mount assembly. On the printed circuit board, the electrical connections of all components are made through pads. So, what are the pad shape and the standards for pad size in PCB design?1.Common PadsA.Square padThey are often used on the pcb with large and few components, and the printed wires are simple.It is easy to use this kind of pad when making a PCB by hand.B.Circular padCircular pads are widely used in single and double-sided printed boards with r...

Teardrop Pad plum blossom pad pad

What Tg means to FR-4 board?

The role of the substrate for printed circuit boards is as important as the role of printed circuit boards for electronic devices. According to the property of PCB substrate, it can be divided into organic substrate and inorganic substrate.The organic substrate is composed of multiple paper layers impregnated with phenolic resin or non-woven or glass cloth layers impregnated with epoxy resin, polyimide, cyanate ester, BT resin, etc.Inorganic substrates mainly include ceramic and metal materials,...

CTE Td pcb FR-4 Tg

Why Some PCBs Need Edge Plating?

Some people may have seen many industrial pcb boards or RF pcb boards with a circle of vias and copper tape around them, and even some RF pcb boards will be metalized around the sides of the board. What is the purpose of the edge plating?As the system rate of each product increases, not only the timing of high-speed digital signals, signal integrity issues are particularly prominent, but also the electromagnetic interference caused by the system from medium-high-speed digital signals and EMC iss...

pcb edge plating

Tips for soldering ---How to solder perfectly.

1.Tools for Hand solderingElectric soldering iron/ stand/ Hot air gun/ Soldering head etc.Conditions for soldering:Solderable parts/ Clean soldered metal surface/ Suitable flux/ Proper soldering temperature/ Right soldering time2.Solder and fluxAny metal or alloy used to fuse two or more metal surfaces into a whole is called solder. The solder mentioned here only refers to the solder used for soldering.Common soldering materials:Tubular solder wire/ Anti-oxidation solder/ Silver-containing solde...

solder joint flux welding soldering

A Digital FM Receiver with Arduino (Including 3W+3W Class-D Stereo Amplifier)

By Hesam Moshiri, Anson BaoFM transmitters/receivers are among the top favorite circuits of any electronic enthusiast. In this article/video, I have introduced a complete digital FM receiver design that has equipped with an LCD screen and three push-buttons. It can search for the FM signals from 76MHz to 108MHz manually and automatically (Scan mode). The signal strength is also displayed as a bar graph on the LCD screen. The output sound is amplified by a 3W+3W Class-D stereo amplifier that hand...

Digital FM Receiver Arduino

7 Surface Finish in PCBWay

A conventional printed circuit board (PCB) has a copper layer on the board. If the copper layer is not protected, it will be oxidized and damaged, directly affecting subsequent soldering. And surface finish is to enable protection of the surface and good solderability of the pcb. There are 7 different surface finish are available in PCBWay: HASL, ENIG, OSP, Hard gold, IS, ENEPIG and IT. Hot Air Solder Levelling (HASL)After the board is completely covered with solder, the excess solder on the sur...

ENEPIG ENIG OSP HASL solderability pcbway surface finish

Build Your IoT Sensor Network — STM32 Blue Pill + nRF24L01 + ESP8266 + Apache Mynewt + thethings.io

Law of Thermospatiality: Air-conditioning always feels too warm AND too cold by different individuals in a sizeable room.Law of Thermospatiality in actionIt’s impossible to get perfect air-conditioning in any room… But we can try! We begin by installing 5 temperature sensors around our living room (to monitor the actual temperature at 5 different spots).We’ll call them the 5 Sensor Nodes. Each Sensor Node will be an STM32 Blue Pill with a temperature sensor.Running cables through the living room...

Apache Mynewt thethings.io Stm32 Nrf24l01 Internet of Things ESP8266 IoT

Principles of Graphic Transfer Technology

Principles of Graphic Transfer Technology (Exposure- DES)Under a certain temperature and pressure, a dry film is attached to the board surface, and then the negative film is used for alignment, and finally the ultraviolet light is irradiated on the exposure machine. Ultraviolet light penetrates the pattern transfer medium (negative film) and the photosensitive material (dry film) undergoes a photochemical reaction, which changes the chemical structure of the polymer or between the polymer, resul...

exposure strip etching development DES Graphic Transfer

3 Tips for RF PCB Layout

Because the radio frequency (RF) circuit is a distributed parameter circuit, skin effect and coupling effect are prone to occur in the actual work of the circuit, so in the actual PCB design, it will be found that the interference radiation in the circuit is difficult to control, Such as: mutual interference between digital circuit and analog circuit, noise interference of power supply, interference caused by unreasonable ground wire, etc. Because of this, how to weigh the pros and cons in the P...

cavity routing layout pcb design RF

Program Your First FPGA With GOWIN GW1N-4

If you’re a software developer like me, you might be thrilled to see so many exciting embedded hardware platforms that we can now program easily, from Arduinos to the PADI IoT Stamp and the STM32 Blue Pill.Today we’ll look at a totally different kind of gadget that’s now within our programming reach — FPGA or Field-Programmable Gate Array. But unless you’re a hardware engineer it’s hard to understand how an FPGA works and why it’s different from microcontrollers and CPUs (even though they are al...

Internet of Things programming IoT arduino Gowin FPGA

Design of BUCK Constant Current Source Circuit Based on RCC

RCC stands for Ringing choke converter, which also means oscillating-blocking power converter. As a once very popular power converter structure, with the rapid development of the integrated circuit industry, it seems to have gradually faded out of mainstream applications.Through the introduction of RCC-based BUCK constant current source circuit, this article explains the method and idea of using discrete components to achieve high precision and high efficiency constant current, and the applicati...

LED driving Constant Current BUCK RCC

Why use FPGA for IoT? Here’s what I think…

Everywhere people are buzzing about FPGA — Field-Programmable Gate Array. It’s a computing device that works like an Arduino Microcontroller — but in a different way. A microcontroller contains a CPU that executes instructions one at a time (but it can’t run 2 instructions simultaneously). Instead of CPU instructions, an FPGA uses a grid of electronic Logic Modules which contain bundles of Logic Gates like AND, OR, NOT. The grid looks like this (from my imagining):Grid of logic modules in an FPG...

microcontroller Field-Programmable Gate Arra Internet of Things FPGA Sigfox IoT Arduino

How to get started with LoRa LPWAN using TTGO LoRa32

This tutorial covers how to get started with LoRa LPWAN using TTGO LoRa32 SX1276. TTGO Lora32 is an ESP32 device with a LoRa module and an SSD1306 LCD display.Using a pair of these devices, we will explore how to send and receive packets using a LoRa network. This is a point-to-point communication where one TTGO Lora32 acts as a sender and the other one is the receiver. Using the LCD display we will visualize the packets transmitted. In this project, we will use PlatformIO to build this project,...

SSD1306 LCD display ESP32 TTGO LoRa32 LoRa LPWAN

6 Misuses of Operational Amplifiers in the Design of Measurement and Control Circuits

Operational amplifier is a very important component in the measurement and control circuit, and has a very wide range of applications in the measurement and control circuit. As a commonly used device, operational amplifiers are more and more widely used in measurement and control circuits. The measurement and control circuit has more requirements for operational amplifiers than other applications, so more stringent requirements are put forward for the design of operational amplifiers. If the ope...

coupling interference voltage comparator Measurement and Control Circuits Operational Amplifiers misuse

Build and Flash Rust+Mynewt Firmware for PineTime Smart Watch

All you need is a Raspberry Pi and a Windows or macOS computer!UPDATE: This code in this article has been archived in the pre-lvgl branch of pinetime-rust-mynewt. The pinetime-rust-mynewt firmware has been revamped to support Rust Watch Faces on LVGL. Check out the updatesWelcome to the World of Modern IoT Gadgets! If you’re used to old-school IoT gadgets like Arduino Uno that are underpowered and have no networking and display… PineTime Smart Watch will surprise you! (Check out the Pine64 Store...

Pinetime Nrf52 Rust Internet of Things raspberry pi

Porting [druid] Rust Widgets to PineTime Smart Watch

A button that responds to our tapping and increments a counter… That’s what we shall accomplish today on the PineTime Smart Watch…The Watch App we see in the video was created with the [druid] Crate in Rust.In [druid], UI controls are known as Widgets. Our app contains two Widgets: A Label Widget that displays the counter, and a Button Widget that increments the counter.Lemme explain the code in the [druid] app…pub fn launch() { // Build a new window let main_window = WindowDesc::new(ui_bu...

PineTime Nrf52 Programming Gadgets Internet of Things Rust

Running Rust and FreeRTOS on the PADI IoT Stamp

Now is the best time to experiment with low-cost, low-power IoT microcontrollers.For under US$ 14, I can buy a tiny stamp-sized PADI microcontroller with ARM Cortex-M3 and built-in WiFi plus SPI, I2C and UART interfaces. And it comes with an SWD USB adapter for flashing and debugging. All set for building the latest and greatest IoT devices!But where are the software tools for writing robust and reliable programs for microcontrollers?Today my IoT students at Temasek Polytechnic are still writing...

Freertos Padi Rtl8710 IoT PADI FreeRTOS Rust

Hacking IoT & RF Devices with BürtleinaBoard

Yet another Multipurpose Breakout Board to hack hardware in a clean and easy way!Disclaimer: due to a complaint from the citizens of my native city in Italy… I had to rename #PiadinaBoard into #BurtleinaBoard :PFew months ago I have presented #FocacciaBoard: a similar multipurpose breakout board that uses the famous FT232H to handle multiple protocols commonly found in (I)IoT devices (i.e. UART, JTAG, SWD, SPI, I2C).Despite #FocacciaBoard is extremely useful during my night-to-night hardware hac...

BürtleinaBoard? RF Devices Radio Iiot Iot Security Hardware Hacking Infosec

Bluetooth Mesh with nRF52 and Apache Mynewt

Suppose we have four light bulbs in our home, each with its own on/off switch…Let’s make them smart… With Wireless Remote Control!Flipping the on/off switch of the first bulb should switch the other bulbs on and off. So the first on/off switch acts like a Master On/Off Switch for our entire home.How shall we implement this?We could do this with WiFi… Assuming that we have good WiFi coverage at every corner of our home. There’s a simpler solution… Bluetooth Mesh!With Bluetooth Mesh there’s no nee...

Gadgets Mynewt Nrf52 Bluetooth Mesh Internet of Things

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