High Power Standalone Digital AC Dimmer Using STM32

By Hesam Moshiri, Anson BaoThis project is only free for personal and non-commercial useAC loads live with us! Because they are everywhere around us and at least home appliances are supplied with the mains power. Many types of industrial equipment are also powered with the single-phase 220V-AC. Therefore, we frequently face situations that we need to have full control (dimming) over an AC load, such as a lamp, an AC motor, a vacuum cleaner, a drill, … etc. We should know that controlling an AC l...

Standalone Digital AC Dimmer

Quantum Leap: Any-layer HDI Technology of PCBWay

IntroductionPCBWay is a high-end PCB R&D and manufacturing company. Since 2015, the company is keenly aware that the future demand for high-density interconnection boards and high-frequency high-speed boards in communications, medical, industrial control, and other industries will show explosive growth. So we further upgrade and adjustment of product strategy, accurate positioning on HDI high-density interconnect circuit boards, 5G communication high-frequency high-speed circuit boards. On t...

Laser Drilling Blind Holes 5G Any-layer HDI

Inrush Current Limiter (Soft Starter) for AC/DC Loads

By Hesam Moshiri, Anson BaoInrush current/Switch-ON surge is the maximal instantaneous input current drawn by an electrical device when first turned on. Inrush current is much higher than the load’s steady-state current and that’s the source of many problems such as fuse blowing up, load failure, load’s lifetime reduction, sparks at the switch contacts … etc. The figure below shows the inrush current phenomenon captured on the Siglent SDS1104X-E oscilloscope. The long spike is clear. In this art...

AC/DC Loads,Inrush Current Limiter

DIY Automatic Hand Sanitizer Dispenser, without Arduino or MCU

Let’s fight with COVID-19 with ElectronicsBy Hesam Moshiri, Anson BaoAs we all know, the COVID-19 outbreak hit the world and changed our lifestyle. In this condition, Alcohol and hand sanitizers are vital fluids, however, they must be used properly. Touching alcohol containers or hand sanitizers with infected hands can spread the virus to the next person. In this article, we will build an automatic hand sanitizer dispenser that uses IR sensors to detect the presence of a hand and activates a pum...

Automatic Hand Sanitizer Dispenser

LM317 Current Boosting Secrets

By Hesam Moshiri, Anson BaoLM317 is one of the most popular adjustable regulator chips. The output voltage of the regulator can be adjusted from 1.25V to 35V. However, the chip can deliver currents up to 1.5A which is not enough for some power applications. In this article, I will discuss two methods of LM317 current boosting, using power PNP and NPN pass transistors.[A] Circuit AnalysisAccording to the LM317 datasheet: “The LM317 [1, 2] device is an adjustable three-terminal positive-voltage re...

LM317 Current Boosting Secrets

Low Noise Adjustable Linear AC-DC Power Supply

By Hesam Moshiri, Anson BaoFeatures:AC – DC ConversionDouble output voltages (Positive – Ground – Negative)Adjustable positive and negative railsJust a Single-Output AC transformerOutput noise (20MHz-BWL, no load): Around 1.12mVpp Low noise and stable outputs (ideal to power Opamps)Output Voltage: +/-1.25V to +/-25V Maximum output current: 300mA to 500mA Cheap and easy to solder (all component packages are DIP)A double output low noise power supply is an essential tool for any electronics enthus...

AC-DC Power Supply

Programmable Police LED Flasher Using an STM8 [36+36 LEDs]

By Hesam Moshiri, Anson BaoThe STM8S001J3 is an 8-bit microcontroller that offers 8 Kbytes of Flash program memory, plus an integrated true data EEPROM. It is referred to as a low-density device in the STM8S microcontroller family. This MCU offered in a small SO8N package. In this article, we are going to build a programmable Police LED Flasher device that can be used for vehicles, motorcycles, and bicycles.[1]: Circuit AnalysisFigure 1 shows the schematic diagram of the device. The heart of thi...

police led flasher using an stm8

DC to DC Buck Converter [Adjustable, 97% Efficient, 3A]

By Hesam Moshiri, Anson BaoA tiny DC to DC buck converter board is useful for many applications, especially if it could deliver currents up to 3A (2A continuously without heatsink). In this article, we will learn to build a small, efficient, and cheap buck converter circuit.[1]: Circuit AnalysisFigure 1 shows the schematic diagram of the device. The main component is the MP2315 step-down buck converter.Figure 1Schematic diagram of the DC to DC buck converterAccording to the MP2315 [1] datasheet:...

DC to DC Buck Converter

Battery capacity measurement using Arduino [Lithium-NiMH-NiCd]

By Hesam Moshiri, Anson BaoFeatures:Identify a fake Lithium-Ion/Lithium-Polymer/NiCd/NiMH batteryAdjustable constant current load (can also be modified by the user)Capable of measuring the capacity of almost any kind of battery (below 5V)Easy to solder, build, and use, even for beginners (all components are Dip)An LCD user interfaceSpecifications:Board Supply: 7V to 9V(Max)Battery Input: 0-5V(max) – no reverse polarityConstant Current Load: 37mA to 540mA(max) – 16 Steps – can be modified by the ...

Battery capacity

What Is A Spot Welder And Why Do You Need One

By Michael & George MarinisElectric and electronic enthusiasts love having every single tool that can make their lives easier. Today, we will be presenting a tool that does just that, a spot welder.What does a spot welder do?:A spot welder – as its name implies – is a device that can weld two metals at a single spot. These two pieces of metal should be “clean”, meaning that there must be no paint or any other coating, so that the current can pass through them. The most important characterist...

Spot Welder

How to measure differential signals using an oscilloscope [Examining the ADSL2+]

By Hesam Moshiri, Anson BaoSingle-Ended TransmissionSingle-ended signaling is a simple and common way of transmitting electrical signals from a sender to a receiver. The signal is ground referenced (0 Volt) and one conductor (wire) carries the signal and one conductor carries the common reference potential. The current associated with the signal travels from sender to receiver and returns to the power supply through the shared ground connection. If multiple signals are transmitted, the carrier r...

differential signal measurement using oscilloscope

How to build an adjustable switching power supply using LM2576 [Buck Converter, CC-CV]

By Hesam Moshiri, Anson BaoAbstractSwitching power supplies are known for high efficiency. An adjustable voltage/current supply is an interesting tool, which can be used in many applications such as a Lithium-ion/Lead-acid/NiCD-NiMH battery charger or a standalone power supply. In this article, we will learn to build a variable step-down buck converter using the popular LM2576-Adj chip.FeaturesCheap and easy to build and useConstant current and constant voltage adjustment [CC, CV] capability1.2V...

adjustable switching power supply

A Powerful 30A DC Motor Driver using Power Mosfets [PWM Controlled, Half Bridge]

By Hesam Moshiri, Anson BaoDC motors are everywhere, from hobby applications to robotics and industrial areas. Therefore there is wide usage and request for suitable and powerful DC motor drivers. In this article, we will learn to build one. You can control it using a Microcontroller, an Arduino, a Raspberry Pi or even a standalone PWM generator chip. By using a proper heatsink and cooling methods, this circuit can handle currents up to 30A.[1]: Circuit AnalysisThe heart of the circuit is an IR2...

DC Motor Driver,Power Mosfets, Half Bridge]

How to build an isolated digital AC dimmer using Arduino

By Hesam Moshiri, Anson BaoDisclaimer: This circuit is connected directly to the mains voltage. You must care about all safety precautions before using the device. AC loads are everywhere around us because at least home appliances are supplied with the mains power. Therefore, we always face the situations that we want to have full control (dimming) over an AC load such as a lamp, a motor, vacuum cleaner … etc. We should know that controlling an AC load is not identical with a DC load. So we shou...

arduino digital AC dimmer

How to build a digital coil-less (100KHz step size) FM transmitter

By Hesam Moshiri, Anson BaoAn FM transmitter is one of the most popular devices between electronic hobbyist, professionals and even non-technical people. In this article, we gonna learn to how to build an easy, stable and digitally controllable FM transmitter.For this design, I have selected the VMR6512 module which truly is like a full RF block on a chip!. It eliminates all essential circuitry for a basic FM transmitter such as inductors and trimmers. According to the VMR6512 datasheet: “VMR651...

FM transmitter digital coil-less

How to make a noise-free infrared obstacle detection

By Hesam Moshiri, Anson BaoAn obstacle detection unit is an essential part of a variety of projects, such as robotics and security applications. The infrared sensors are widely used for these types of applications. The main drawback of some circuit designs is that the detection units are sensitive to the outside lights and react unstable or noisy.In this project, we selected a proper IR receiving component and designed the circuit in a way to act as stable as possible. Also, you can adjust the s...

noise-free infrared obstacle detection

How to make a variable step-down DC to DC converter using TPS54331

By Hesam Moshiri and Anson Bao.Almost in any circuit design, building at least one regulation stage is necessary. Two power supply design options are available, which are linear and switching. The linear regulators are easy to build but inefficient, especially when there is a high difference between the input voltage and the desired output voltage. Also, by increasing the regulator output current, the efficiency also decreases. Both of these problems are easily visible in terms of heat dissipati...

DC to DC

A Macro Introduction to the Communication Architecture of the Internet of Things

This article introduces the communication architecture of the IoT from a macro perspective so that everyone has a preliminary understanding of the working principle of the increasingly frequent IoT devices, which are mainly divided into three modes: direct integration pattern, gateway integration,pattern, and cloud integration pattern.1. Direct integration patternGenerally, the IoT devices we use, such as the apple watch, and the mobile phone are direct connection mode, but they use Bluetooth an...

Gateway integration pattern Direct integration pattern IOT

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