Relays Part 9: Reed Relays

IntroductionThe first idea about reed relays came into existence around 1922 when a professor who worked at Leningrad Electrotechnical University proposed it. His idea was about a contract that was co...

Relays Part 8: Latching Relays

 IntroductionAs discussed earlier, a relay is defined as an electrical switch made up of inputs and terminals of operation used to carry out single or multiple signal controls in electrical circu...

Why do Multi-layer PCBs Always Have an Even Number of Layers?

The number of layers in a printed circuit board (PCB) can be classified into single-layer (1 layer), double-layer (2 layers), and multi-layer. The number of layers in multi-layer PCBs is not restricte...

Multi-layer PCB Layers Even number

Relays Part 7: Differential Relays

IntroductionToo many types of relays are used in the area of power systems. Among these many relays is the protective relay that finds great significance and uses in electrical devices such as generat...

Relays Part 6: Distance Relays Important Theory

IntroductionSeveral types of protective relays exist, and distance relays are one of them. Distance relay is a relay that is significant in the area of power electronics. It utilises the feeder point ...

Relays Part 5: Special Terms Frequently Used in Protective Relays

IntroductionIn part four of this series, we introduced the basic theories of protective relays in electrical systems. Several terms were used and some of us might find it difficult to understand them ...

Relays Part 4: The Protective Relay Basic Theory

IntroductionPower electronic relays are important components when it comes to controlling voltages and currents in an electrical circuit by involving a low-power signal. There exist so many different ...

What are Bare and Zero PCBs? | PCB Knowledge

What is a Bare PCB?A bare PCB, also referred to blank PCB, is a type of printed circuit board that does not have any electronic components installed on it. These boards typically feature substrate, co...

Relays Part 3: Important and Common Relay Specifications that an Engineer Must Know

IntroductionIt is essential to take seriously the relay specifications listed on their datasheets. They are not just numbers, and a sound engineer must work with them if they need to achieve quality. ...

The Difference between Aluminum PCB and FR4 PCB

With the continuous development of electronic technology, the application of PCBs has become increasingly widespread. PCBs are integral components of electronic devices, playing crucial roles in vario...

Aluminum PCB FR4 PCB

LEDs: From Basics to Special Types | PCB Knowledge

LEDs, short for Light Emitting Diodes, are semiconductor devices that efficiently convert electrical energy into light, in contrast to less efficient incandescent light bulbs that produce light throug...

Relays Part 2: Types of Relays

ElevatorA good engineer would like to control the switching and protection of the electrical circuit. One of the basic components to use in such functions is the relay, and for this article, we will i...

PCB High-Speed Design Basics | PCB Knowledge

Have you ever noticed that when we introduce some PCB designs or techniques like back drilling or teardrops, we can often see a sentence like “it can be applied to high-speed application”? But how muc...

high-speed design

PCB Protection: Potting or Conformal Coating? | PCB Knowledge

PCB potting is a process where a printed circuit board or electronic component is immersed or coated with a protective material, usually a liquid or gel-like substance called potting compound. Dependi...

PCB Protection Potting Conformal Coating

Potentiometer Brief Theory: Definition, Operating Principle, Types, and Sizing

IntroductionThe most used component in an electrical circuit is the resistor. Its purpose is to regulate the flow of electrical current by inducing or removing resistance in the circuit. They are read...

Potentiometer

What is Copper Thieving in PCB? | PCB Knowledge

Copper thieving is a technique used to balance the copper distribution on a PCB by adding small copper circles, squares, or even a solid copper plane to larger blank spaces. The added copper is not co...

Copper Thieving Copper Pour

Relays Part 1: Introduction to PCBs Relay’s Basic Theory

IntroductionIn power electronics, power flow control is one of the critical areas if you need to have a successful system performance. The system's success is determined by the stability of the power ...

Relay

What are Stitching Vias? | PCB Knowledge

Definition of Stitching Vias Unlike regular vias used for signal routing and electrical continuity between different layers of a PCB, stitching vias form an array strategically placed within larger co...

What do you know about copper weight? | PCB Knowledge

What Copper Weight Means? Copper weight refers to the amount of copper on each square foot of the PCB surface, measured in ounces per square foot (oz/ft²). However, we often encounter another term, co...

copper weight copper thickness

Understanding the Single-Phase Full Wave Converter

IntroductionPreviously, we had a look at the single-phase semi-converter design. We noted that the converter utilizes the technology of two thyristors and two diodes in its bridge circuit supported by...

Single-Phase Full Wave Converter

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